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Henry David Thoreau (July 12, 1817 – May 6,
1862; born David Henry Thoreau) was an American author,
naturalist, transcendentalist, tax resister, development critic,
and philosopher who is best known for Walden, a reflection upon
simple living in natural surroundings, and his essay, Civil
Disobedience, an argument for individual resistance to civil
government in moral opposition to an unjust state.
Thoreau’s books, articles, essays, journals, and poetry total
over 20 volumes. Among his lasting contributions were his
writings on natural history and philosophy, where he anticipated
the methods and findings of ecology and environmental history,
two sources of modern day environmentalism.
He was a lifelong abolitionist, delivering lectures that
attacked the Fugitive Slave Law while praising the writings of
Wendell Phillips and defending the abolitionist John Brown.
Thoreau’s philosophy of nonviolent resistance influenced the
political thoughts and actions of such later figures as Leo
Tolstoy, Mohandas K. Gandhi, and Martin Luther King, Jr.
Some anarchists claim Thoreau as an inspiration. Though Civil
Disobedience calls for improving rather than abolishing
government — “I ask for, not at once no government, but at once
a better government” — the direction of this improvement aims
at anarchism: “‘That government is best which governs not at all;’
and when men are prepared for it, that will be the kind of
government which they will have.”
Early Years: 1817-1837
Thoreau was born in Concord, Massachusetts to John Thoreau and
Cynthia Dunbar. His paternal grandfather was of French origin
and born in Jersey. His maternal grandfather, Asa Dunbar, was
known for leading Harvard's 1766 student "Bread and Butter
Rebellion" the first recorded student protest in the United
States. David Henry was named after a recently deceased
paternal uncle, David Thoreau. He did not become “Henry David”
until after college, although he never petitioned to make a
legal name change. He had two older siblings, Helen and John
Jr., and a younger sister, Sophia. Thoreau’s birthplace still
exists on Virginia Road in Concord and is currently the focus of
preservation efforts. The house is original, but it now stands
about 100 yards away from its first site.
Bronson Alcott and Thoreau's aunt both wrote that “Thoreau” is
pronounced like the word “thorough”, whose standard American
pronunciation rhymes with “furrow”. In appearance he was
homely, with a nose that he called “my most prominent feature”.
Of his face, Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote: “[Thoreau] is as ugly as
sin, long-nosed, queer-mouthed, and with uncouth and rustic,
though courteous manners, corresponding very well with such an
exterior. But his ugliness is of an honest and agreeable
fashion, and becomes him much better than beauty.”
Thoreau studied at Harvard between 1833 and 1837. He lived in
Hollis Hall and took courses in rhetoric, classics, philosophy,
mathematics, and science. Legend states that Thoreau refused to
pay the five-dollar fee for a Harvard diploma. In fact, the
master's degree he declined to purchase had no academic merit:
Harvard College offered it to graduates “who proved their
physical worth by being alive three years after graduating, and
their saving, earning, or inheriting quality or condition by
having Five Dollars to give the college”  His comment was:
“Let every sheep keep its own skin.”
to Concord: 1837-1841
During a leave of absence from Harvard in 1835, Thoreau taught
school in Canton, Massachusetts. After graduating in 1837, he
joined the faculty of Concord Academy, but he refused to
administer corporal punishment and the school board soon
dismissed him. He and his brother John then opened a grammar
school in Concord in 1838. They introduced several progressive
concepts, including nature walks and visits to local shops and
businesses. The school ended when John became fatally ill from
tetanus in 1841. Upon graduation Thoreau returned home to
Concord, where he befriended Ralph Waldo Emerson. Emerson took a
paternal and at times patronizing interest in Thoreau, advising
the young man and introducing him to a circle of local writers
and thinkers, including Ellery Channing, Margaret Fuller,
Bronson Alcott, Nathaniel Hawthorne and his son Julian, who was
a boy at the time. Of the many prominent authors who lived in
Concord, Thoreau was the only town native. Emerson referred to
him as the man of Concord.
Emerson constantly urged Thoreau to contribute essays and poems
to a quarterly periodical, The Dial, and Emerson lobbied with
editor Margaret Fuller to publish those writings. Thoreau’s
first essay published there was Natural History of Massachusetts;
half book review, half natural history essay, it appeared in
1842. It consisted of revised passages from his journal, which
he had begun keeping at Emerson’s suggestion. The first entry on
October 22, 1837 reads, “‘What are you doing now?’ he asked. ‘Do
you keep a journal?’ So I make my first entry today.”
Thoreau was a philosopher of nature and its relation to the
human condition. In his early years he followed
Transcendentalism, a loose and eclectic idealist philosophy
advocated by Emerson, Fuller, and Alcott. They held that an
ideal spiritual state transcends, or goes beyond, the physical
and empirical, and that one achieves that insight via personal
intuition rather than religious doctrine. In their view, Nature
is the outward sign of inward spirit, expressing the “radical
correspondence of visible things and human thoughts,” as Emerson
wrote in Nature (1836).
From 1841-1844, Thoreau joined the Emerson household to serve as
the children’s tutor, editorial assistant, and repair man/gardener.
For a few months in 1843, he moved to the home of William
Emerson on Staten Island, tutoring the family sons while writing
for New York periodicals, aided in part by his future literary
representative Horace Greeley.
Thoreau returned to Concord and worked in his family's pencil
factory, which he would continue to do for most of his adult
life. He rediscovered the process to make a good pencil out of
inferior graphite by using clay as the binder; this invention
improved upon graphite found in New Hampshire in 1821 by Charles
Dunbar. (The process of mixing graphite and clay, known as the
Conté process, was patented by Nicolas-Jacques Conté in 1795.)
Later, Thoreau converted the factory to produce plumbago (graphite),
used to ink typesetting machines. Frequent contact with
minute particles of graphite may have weakened his lungs already
damaged by TB.
Once back in Concord, Thoreau went through a restless period. In
April 1844 he and his friend Edward Hoar accidentally set a fire
that consumed 300 acres of Walden Woods. He spoke often of
finding a farm to buy or lease, which he felt would give him a
means to support himself while also providing enough solitude to
write his first book.
Civil Disobedience and the Walden Years: 1845–1849
Thoreau embarked on a two-year experiment in simple living on
July 4, 1845, when he moved to a small self-built house on land
owned by Emerson in a second-growth forest around the shores of
Walden Pond. The house was not in wilderness but at the edge of
town, 1.5 miles (2.4 km) from his family home.
On July 24 or 25th, 1846, Thoreau ran into the local tax
collector, Sam Staples, who asked him to pay six years of
delinquent poll taxes. Thoreau refused because of his opposition
to the Mexican-American War and slavery, and he spent a night in
jail because of this refusal. (The next day Thoreau was freed,
over his protests, when his aunt paid his taxes.)  The
experience had a strong impact on Thoreau. In January and
February of 1848, he delivered lectures on "The Rights and
Duties of the Individual in relation to Government”
explaining his tax resistance at the Concord Lyceum. Bronson
Alcott attended the lecture, and wrote in his journal on January
Heard Thoreau’s lecture before the Lyceum on the relation of the
individual to the State — an admirable statement of the rights
of the individual to self-government, and an attentive audience.
His allusions to the Mexican War, to Mr. Hoar’s expulsion from
Carolina, his own imprisonment in Concord Jail for refusal to
pay his tax, Mr. Hoar’s payment of mine when taken to prison for
a similar refusal, were all pertinent, well considered, and
reasoned. I took great pleasure in this deed of Thoreau’s.
Thoreau revised the lecture into an essay entitled Resistance to
Civil Government (also known as Civil Disobedience). In May 1849
it was published by Elizabeth Peabody in the Aesthetic Papers.
At Walden Pond, he completed a first draft of A Week on the
Concord and Merrimack Rivers, an elegy to his brother, John,
that described their 1839 trip to the White Mountains. Thoreau
did not find a publisher for this book, and Emerson urged
Thoreau to publish at his own expense. Thoreau did so with
Munroe, Emerson’s own publisher, who did little to publicize the
book, which failed entirely to sell. Its failure put Thoreau
into debt that took years to pay off, and Emerson’s flawed
advice caused a schism between the friends that never entirely
In August of 1846, Thoreau briefly left Walden to make a trip to
Mount Katahdin in Maine, a journey later recorded in “Ktaadn,”
the first part of The Maine Woods.
Thoreau left Walden Pond on September 6, 1847. Over several
years, he worked to pay off his debts and also continuously
revised his manuscript. In 1854, he published Walden, or Life in
the Woods, recounting the two years, two months, and two days he
had spent at Walden Pond. The book compresses that time into a
single calendar year, using the passage of four seasons to
symbolize human development. Part memoir and part spiritual
quest, Walden at first won few admirers, but today critics
regard it as a classic American book that explores natural
simplicity, harmony, and beauty as models for just social and
n 1851, Thoreau became increasingly fascinated with natural
history and travel/expedition narratives. He read avidly on
botany and often wrote observations on this topic into his
Journal. He greatly admired William Bartram, and Charles
Darwin’s Voyage of the Beagle. He kept detailed observations on
Concord's nature lore, recording everything from how the fruit
ripened over time to the fluctuating depths of Walden Pond and
the days certain birds migrated. The point of this task was to
“anticipate” the seasons of nature, in his words.
He became a land surveyor, and continued to write increasingly
detailed natural history observations about the 26 mile² (67 km²)
township in his Journal, a two-million word document he kept for
24 years. He also kept a series of separate notebooks, and these
observations became the source for Thoreau's late natural
history writings, such as Autumnal Tints, The Succession of
Trees, and Wild Apples, an essay bemoaning the destruction of
indigenous and wild apple species.
Until the 1970s, Thoreau’s late pursuits were dismissed by
literary critics as amateur science and declined philosophy.
With the rise of environmental history and ecocriticism, several
new readings of this matter began to emerge, showing Thoreau to
be both a philosopher and an analyst of ecological patterns in
fields and woodlots. For instance, his late essay, "The
Succession of Forest Trees," shows that he used experimentation
and analysis to explain how forests regenerate after fire or
human destruction, through dispersal by seed-bearing winds or
He was an early advocate of recreational hiking and canoeing, of
conserving natural resources on private land, and of preserving
wilderness as public land. Thoreau was also one of the first
American supporters of Darwin's theory of evolution. Although
not a strict vegetarian, Thoreau ate relatively little meat and
advocated vegetarianism as a means of self-improvement.
Thoreau neither rejected civilization nor fully embraced
wilderness. Instead he sought a middle ground, the pastoral
realm that integrates both nature and culture. The wildness he
enjoyed was the nearby swamp or forest, and he preferred
“partially cultivated country.” His idea of being “far in the
recesses of the wilderness” of Maine was to “travel the logger’s
path and the Indian trail,” but he also hiked on pristine
untouched land. In the essay "Henry David Thoreau, Philosopher"
Roderick Nash writes: "Thoreau left Concord in 1846 for the
first of three trips to northern Maine. His expectations were
high because he hoped to find genuine, primeval America. But
contact with real wilderness in Maine affected him far
differently than had the idea of wilderness in Concord. Instead
of coming out of the woods with a deepened appreciation of the
wilds, Thoreau felt a greater respect for civilization and
realized the necessity of balance."
He traveled to Quebec once, Cape Cod four times, and Maine three
times; these landscapes inspired his “excursion” books, A Yankee
in Canada, Cape Cod, and The Maine Woods, in which travel
itineraries frame his thoughts about geography, history and
philosophy. Other travels took him southwest to Philadelphia and
New York City in 1854, and west across the Great Lakes region in
1861, visiting Niagara Falls, Detroit, Chicago, Milwaukee, St.
Paul and Mackinac Island.
After John Brown’s raid at Harpers Ferry, many prominent voices
in the abolitionist movement distanced themselves from Brown, or
damned him with faint praise. Thoreau was disgusted by this, and
composed a speech — A Plea for Captain John Brown — which was
uncompromising in its defense of Brown and his actions.
Thoreau’s speech proved persuasive: first the abolitionist
movement began to accept Brown as a martyr, and by the time of
the American Civil War entire armies of the North would
literally be singing Brown’s praises. As a contemporary
biographer of John Brown put it: “If, as Alfred Kazin suggests,
without John Brown there would have been no Civil War, we would
add that without the Concord Transcendentalists, John Brown
would have had little cultural impact.”
Thoreau first contracted tuberculosis in 1835 and suffered from
it sporadically over his life. In 1859, following a late night
excursion to count the rings of tree stumps during a rain storm,
he became ill with bronchitis. His health declined over three
years with brief periods of remission, until he eventually
became bedridden. Recognizing the terminal nature of his disease,
Thoreau spent his last years revising and editing his
unpublished works, particularly Excursions and The Maine Woods
and petitioning publishers to print revised editions of A Week
and Walden. He also wrote letters and journal entries until he
became too weak to continue. His friends were alarmed at his
diminished appearance and fascinated by his tranquil acceptance
of death. When his aunt Louisa asked him in his last weeks if he
had made his peace with God, Thoreau responded quite simply: “I
did not know we had ever quarreled.” He died on May 6, 1862 at
the age of 44.
Originally buried in the Dunbar family plot, he and members of
his immediate family were eventually moved to Sleepy Hollow
Cemetery in Concord, Massachusetts. Emerson wrote the eulogy
spoken at his funeral. Thoreau’s best friend Ellery Channing
published his first biography, Thoreau the Poet-Naturalist, in
1873, and Channing and another friend Harrison Blake edited some
poems, essays, and journal entries for posthumous publication in
the 1890s. Thoreau’s Journal, often mined but largely
unpublished at his death, first appeared in 1906 and helped to
build his modern reputation. A new and greatly expanded edition
of the Journal is underway, published by Princeton University
Press. Today, Thoreau is regarded as one of the foremost
American writers, both for the modern clarity of his prose style
and the prescience of his views on nature and politics. His
memory is honored by the international Thoreau Society, the
oldest and largest society devoted to an American author.[citation
Thoreau first received a letter from Harrison Blake, an ex-minister
(Unitarian) widower of Worcester, Massachusetts, in March of
1848. Thus began a correspondence which lasted at least until
May 3, 1861. Only Blake's first letter remains, but forty-nine
of Thoreau's replies have been recovered. Harrison Blake, a year
older than Thoreau, heard of Thoreau's experiment at Walden only
six months after Thoreau had returned, but still six years
before the book Walden was to be published. And while Thoreau
was not yet widely recognized for his philosophical outlook,
initiating a discourse with the author was strictly for that
reason. Blake's first letter makes it clear that he seeks a
spiritual mentor, and Thoreau's replies reveal that he was eager
to fill the role. After the death of Sophia Thoreau, Harrison
Blake inherited Thoreau's papers, and Blake was the first to
publish extracts from the Journal.
Thoreau’s writings had far reaching influences on many public
figures. Political leaders and reformers like Mahatma Gandhi,
President John F. Kennedy, Civil rights activist Martin Luther
King, Jr., Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas, Russian
author Leo Tolstoy and voyager Christopher McCandless. all spoke
of being strongly affected by Thoreau’s work, particularly Civil
Disobedience. So did many artists and authors including Edward
Abbey, Willa Cather, Marcel Proust, William Butler Yeats,
Sinclair Lewis, Ernest Hemingway, E. B. White and Frank Lloyd
Wright and naturalists like John Burroughs, John Muir, E.O.
Wilson, Edwin Way Teale, Joseph Wood Krutch , B.F Skinner, and
David Brower. Anarchist and feminist Emma Goldman also
appreciated Thoreau, and referred to him as “the greatest
Mahatma Gandhi first read Walden in 1906 while working as a
civil rights activist in Johannesburg, South Africa. He told
American reporter Webb Miller, "[Thoreau's] ideas influenced me
greatly. I adopted some of them and recommended the study of
Thoreau to all of my friends who were helping me in the cause of
Indian Independence. Why I actually took the name of my movement
from Thoreau's essay 'On the Duty of Civil Disobedience,'
written about 80 years ago."
Martin Luther King, Jr noted in his Autobiography that his first
encounter with the idea of non-violent resistance was reading "On
Civil Disobedience" in 1944 while attending Morehouse College.
He wrote in his autobiography that it was
Here, in this courageous New Englander's refusal to pay his
taxes and his choice of jail rather than support a war that
would spread slavery's territory into Mexico, I made my first
contact with the theory of nonviolent resistance. Fascinated by
the idea of refusing to cooperate with an evil system, I was so
deeply moved that I reread the work several times.
I became convinced that noncooperation with evil is as much a
moral obligation as is cooperation with good. No other person
has been more eloquent and passionate in getting this idea
across than Henry David Thoreau. As a result of his writings and
personal witness, we are the heirs of a legacy of creative
protest. The teachings of Thoreau came alive in our civil rights
movement; indeed, they are more alive than ever before. Whether
expressed in a sit-in at lunch counters, a freedom ride into
Mississippi, a peaceful protest in Albany, Georgia, a bus
boycott in Montgomery, Alabama, these are outgrowths of
Thoreau's insistence that evil must be resisted and that no
moral man can patiently adjust to injustice.
The University of Michigan's New England Literature Program is
an experiential literature and writing program run through UM's
Department of English Language and Literature which was started
in the 1970's by professors Alan Howes and Walter Clark. Howes
and Clark called upon Thoreauvian ideals of nature, independence
and community to create an academic program modeled after
Thoreau's experiment at Walden Pond. Today, students at NELP
study Thoreau's work--as well as that of several other New
England writers from the 19th and 20th centuries--in relative
isolation on Sebago Lake in Raymond, Maine.
American Psychologist B. F. Skinner wrote that he carried a copy
of Thoreau's Walden with him in his youth  and, in 1945,
wrote Walden Two, a fictional utopia about 1,000 members of a
community living together inspired by the life of Thoreau.
Thoreau was not without his critics. Scottish author Robert
Louis Stevenson judged Thoreau’s endorsement of living alone in
natural simplicity, apart from modern society, to be a mark of
…Thoreau’s content and ecstasy in living was, we may say, like a
plant that he had watered and tended with womanish solicitude;
for there is apt to be something unmanly, something almost
dastardly, in a life that does not move with dash and freedom,
and that fears the bracing contact of the world. In one word,
Thoreau was a skulker. He did not wish virtue to go out of him
among his fellow-men, but slunk into a corner to hoard it for
himself. He left all for the sake of certain virtuous self-indulgences.
However, English novelist George Eliot, writing in the
Westminster Review, characterized such critics as uninspired and
People—very wise in their own eyes—who would have every man’s
life ordered according to a particular pattern, and who are
intolerant of every existence the utility of which is not
palpable to them, may pooh-pooh Mr. Thoreau and this episode in
his history, as unpractical and dreamy.
Throughout the 19th century, Thoreau was dismissed as a cranky
provincial, hostile to material progress. In a later era,
Thoreau is often cited as a progenitor of modern social
movements such as environmentalism and vegetarianism.
This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.
* The Service (1840)
* A Walk to Wachusett (1842)
* Paradise (to be) Regained (1843)
* The Landlord (1843) 
* Sir Walter Raleigh (1844)
* Herald of Freedom (1844)
* Wendell Phillips Before the Concord Lyceum (1845)
* Reform and the Reformers (1846-8)
* Thomas Carlyle and His Works (1847)
* A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers (1849) 
* Resistance to Civil Government, or Civil Disobedience (1849)
* An Excursion to Canada (1853) 
* Slavery in Massachusetts (1854)
* Walden (1854)
* A Plea for Captain John Brown (1859)
* Remarks After the Hanging of John Brown (1859)
* The Last Days of John Brown (1860)
* Walking (1861) 
* Autumnal Tints (1862) 
* Wild Apples: The History of the Apple Tree (1862) 
* Excursions (1863)
* Life Without Principle (1863)
* Night and Moonlight (1863) 
* The Highland Light (1864) 
* The Maine Woods (1864) 
* Cape Cod (1865) 
* Letters to Various Persons (1865)
* A Yankee in Canada, with Anti-Slavery and Reform Papers (1866)
* Early Spring in Massachusetts (1881)
* Summer (1884)
* Winter (1888)
* Autumn (1892)
* Misellanies (1894)
* Familiar Letters of Henry David Thoreau (1894)
* Poems of Nature (1895)
* Some Unpublished Letters of Henry D. and Sophia E. Thoreau
* The First and Last Journeys of Thoreau (1905)
* Journal of Henry David Thoreau (1906)
* The Thoreau Reader. The annotated works of Henry David Thoreau.
* Thoreau's Life & Writings, at the Thoreau Institute at Walden
* Works by Henry David Thoreau at Project Gutenberg. Text and
* Works by Henry David Thoreau at Internet Archive. Scanned
* Works by Henry David Thoreau at Google Books. Scanned books.
* Thoreau's Journal Drippings; a Monthly Digest of Excerpts from
* Excerpts from Thoreau’s Journals (relating to political
* Poems of Thoreau
* The Writings of Henry D. Thoreau, a project that aims to
provide accurate texts of Thoreau's works
* Concord Museum, which contains many of Thoreau's possessions
* The Night Thoreau Spent in Jail, a two-act play by Robert
Edwin Lee and Jerome Lawrence.
1. ^ Biography of Henry David Thoreau, American Poems (2000-2007
2. ^ a b Thoreau, H.D. Resistance to Civil Government
3. ^ RootsWeb WorldConnect Project: Ancestors of Mary Ann Gillam
and Stephen Old
4. ^ History of the Fraternity System: 
5. ^ Trivia-Library: 
6. ^ Henry David Thoreau, Meet the Writers, Barnes & Noble.com
(1997-2007 Barnesandnoble.com llc).
7. ^ Biography of Henry David Thoreau, American Poems (2000-2007
8. ^ Thoreau Reader: THUR-oh or Thor-OH? And How Do We Know?
9. ^ Thoreau, H.D. Cape Cod
10. ^ Hawthorne, Nathaniel American Notebooks
11. ^ Thoreau's Diploma". American Literature Vol. 17, May 1945.
12. ^ Dean, Bradley P. "A Thoreau Chronology".
13. ^ Conrad, Randall “The Machine in the Wetland: Re-imagining
Thoreau's Plumbago-Grinder” Thoreau Society Bulletin Fall 2005
14. ^ A Chronology of Thoreau's Life, with Events of the Times,
The Thoreau Project, Calliope Film Resources, accessed 11th June
15. ^ Rosenwald, Lawrence. "The Theory, Practice & Influence of
Thoreau's Civil Disobedience". William Cain, ed. A Historical
Guide to Henry David Thoreau..Cambridge: Oxford University Press,
16. ^ Thoreau, H.D. letter to Ralph Waldo Emerson 23 February
17. ^ Alcott, Bronson. Journals. Boston: Little, Brown, 1938.
18. ^ http://www.wsu.edu/~hughesc/thoreau.htm"Henry David
Thoreau, Philosopher" by Roderick Nash
19. ^ Henry David Thoreau, The Annotated Walden (1970), Philip
Van Doren Stern, ed., pp. 96, 132
20. ^ Reynolds, David S. John Brown, Abolitionist Knopf (2005),
21. ^ Kifer, Ken Analysis and Notes on Walden: Henry Thoreau’s
Text with Adjacent Thoreauvian Commentary
22. ^ Miller, Webb. I Found No Peace. Garden City, 1938. 238-239
23. ^ King, M.L. Autobiography of Martin Luther King, Jr.
24. ^ Skinner, B. F. A Matter of Consequences
25. ^ Skinner, B. F. Walden Two (1948)
26. ^ Stevenson, Robert Louis. "Henry David Thoreau: His
Character and Opinions". Cornhill Magazine. June 1880.
* Henry David Thoreau: A Week, Walden, The Maine Woods, Cape Cod
(Robert F. Sayre, ed.) (Library of America, 1985) ISBN
* Henry David Thoreau: Collected Essays and Poems (Elizabeth
Hall Witherell, ed.) (Library of America, 2001) ISBN
* Henry David Thoreau: The Price of Freedom: Excerpts from
Thoreau’s Journals ISBN 978-1434805522
* Bode, Carl. Best of Thoreau's Journals. Southern Illinois
University Press. 1967.
* Botkin, Daniel. No Man's Garden.
* Dassow Walls, Laura. Seeing New Worlds: Henry David Thoreau
and 19th Century Science. University of Wisconsin Press. 1995.
* Dean, Bradley P. ed., Letters to a Spiritual Seeker. New York:
W. W. Norton & Company, 2004.
* Harding, Walter. The Days of Henry Thoreau. Princeton
University Press, 1982.
* Hendrix, George. "The Influence of Thoreau's "Civil
Disobedience" on Gandhi's Satyagraha". The New England Quarterly.
* Howarth, William. The Book of Concord: Thoreau's Life as a
Writer. Viking Press, 1982.
* Meyerson, Joel et al. The Cambridge Companion to Henry David
Thoreau. Cambridge University Press. 1995.
* Nash, Roderick. Henry David Thoreau, Philosopher.
* Parrington, Vernon. Main Current in American Thought. V 2
* Petroski, Henry. H. D. Thoreau, Engineer. American Heritage of
Invention and Technology, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 8-16.